You find Buddhist temples, Hindu Kovils, Royal Gardens, Palaces , Administrative buildings , Sewage systems, road networks etc inside the old city. Only very limited Archeological excavations had been carried out inside the old city. Looking at what remains now in the old city one can clearly visualize a highly developed civilization that existed in Polonnaruwa when it was the capital of Sri Lanka.
There are two walls constructed out of both bricks and stone, to safeguard the inner city and the outer city. There were 14 gates in the city walls. They were named as Raja, aeth ( tusker) Sinha ( Lion), Indra, Hanumnath, Maha Kuwera, Chandi, Raksha, Sarpa ( serpant) , Jala (water) Gandhabba, Maya, Udyana ( parks) and Maha Thittha.
Polonnaruwa was a well planned city. According to historical records, King Parakramabahu the Great had built several housing complexes. The houses of the rich would have been made out of brick while the poor would have lived in houses made of wattle and daub or timber with thatched roofs.
That may be the reasonwhy we cannot find any remains of these houses now.When you look at the buildings of Polonnaruwa as a whole, you can see architectural styles of the ancient period as well as those of the medieval period, in almost all the buildings. Most researchers in archeology agree that these constructions have been, to a great extent, influenced by contemporary Hindu and Tamil architectural traditions of South India. But we cannot fullly agree with this view. This is specially so due to these constructions having various features which could be considered to be indigenous. Therefore there could be different r points of view on this subject. It is also possible that these Hindu Kovils and other places of Hindu worship were , built by South Indian technicians for the use of the South Indian Courtiers of Sinhala Kings of that time.